Attributes of the little horn in Daniel
In a previous article we have learned that the Little Horn as depicted in Daniel, has certain attributes that are given it. You’ll also remember that a horn in prophecy is a kingdom. This kingdom is given certain attributes which allowed us to identify it as the Vatican, also called the Papal power.
Here are the attributes once again:
1. Arose out of the fourth beats. (Daniel 7:7,
It comes out of Rome
2. Arose among the ten horns. (Daniel 7:8)
Arose in Western Europe out of the Western Roman Empire
3. Arise after the ten horns. (Daniel 7:24)
Arose after 476AD
4. Different from the other ten horns. (Daniel 7:24)
Not just a political entity
5. Becomes more stout that the others. (Daniel 7:20)
Becomes mightier than the ten kingdoms
6. Uprooted three kingdoms. (Daniel 7:20)
Heruli, Vandals and Ostrogoths
7. Has eyes like a man and speaks great words against the Most High. (Daniel 7:8, 25)
Pompous words, putting itself above God, sitting in God’s temple
8. Make war against the saints of God. (Daniel 7:25)
Persecuting power against the saints of God
9. Will change times and laws. (Daniel 7:25)
It must be divine times and laws that this kingdom is said to change…
10. Will rule for time, times and the dividing of time. (Daniel 7:25)
Also called 3 ½ prophetic years, therefore 1260 literal years
11. It shall devour the whole earth. (Daniel 7:23)
12. Exists until the end of time. (Daniel 7:22)
Until the Ancient of days come, the second coming – so it must be here now
13. It is a little kingdom (little horn)
Let’s discuss each of these attributes in detail, to exclude any possibility of confusion as we have to make absolutely sure that we have identified this power correctly.
1. It arose out of the fourth beast
The fourth beast of Daniel 7 was identified as the Roman Empire. With the end of the Roman Empire in 476AD and its division into the ten Western European empires, the Vatican arose as a religio-political empire soon afterwards.
The Vatican was only found in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty, signed by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri, on behalf of the Holy See and by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini on behalf of the Kingdom of Italy. Since after 1377, with the return of Avignon, Popes have generally resided in the area where Vatican city stands today and at times, they have resided in the Quirinal Palace in Rome. Before that, they have resided at the Lateran Palace on the Caelian Hill on the far side of Rome from the Vatican. This site was given to Pope Miltiades by Emperor Constantine in 313.
Pagan Rome started to gradually loose grip on the empire and as a consequence of the decline in Pagan Roman power, Papal Rome rose in power. By the fourth century, classic Christianity had largely been replaced by organized churches with magnificent church buildings and cathedrals and an organized power structure within, with a pope at its head. Classic Christianity where apposed by this upcoming religious power.
The conversion of Emperor Constantine (306-337 AD) to Christianity and his efforts to blend paganism into Christianity caused Rome to become the religious capital of the world by 321 AD. In 330 AD Constantine moved his capital to Constantinople and the pope inherited much of the prestige, power and titles of the emperor, of which the most significant title is Pontifex Maximus, meaning “The bridge between heaven and earth”.
In 538 AD under Emperor Justinian a decree was given, known as the Justinian Decree, that the pope was granted supremacy as the Bishop of Rome over the Church. This kingdom known in prophecy as the Little Horn Kingdom of Daniel, today known as the Vatican, did originate out of the fourth beast, the Roman Empire.
“The papacy is but the ghost of the Roman Empire, sitting crowned upon the grave thereof”
2. Arose among the ten horns
The ten horns amongst which this little horn kingdom is said to rise is the ten European kingdoms from the Western Roman Empire, which divided into the 1. Alananni 2. Burgundian 3. Franks 4. Lombards 5. Saxons 6. Suevi 7. Visigoths 8. Vandals 9. Ostrogoths and the 10. Heruli.
The domicile of all the Bishops of Rome, or Popes, has always been in or around Rome in Italy (Heruli on the map above), which is “amongst the ten horns” – in Western Europe.
3. Arise after the ten horns.
This little kingdom (horn) will arise after the first ten kingdoms (horns).
The Western Roman Empire gave way to the ten kingdoms of Western Europe in the year 476 AD. This kingdom was officially granted authority in the year 538 AD by Emperor Justinian when a decree was given that the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, represents the Church of Rome, the Mother Church. This title was more than just a political title, it was an ecclesiastical title as well.
4. Different from the other ten horns
This kingdom is said to be diverse or different from the previous ten kingdoms. In what kind of way is Papal Rome different than the European nations? The Vatican is more than just a political entity, it is an ecclesiastical entity with power over the church as well.
Another difference is that Papal Rome’s power and influences stretches far across its own borders. It is not confined or limited to its geographical boundaries but has power over churches on a global scale – it is a religio-political entity.
5. Becomes more stout that the others
This kingdom is said to become more stout than the other kingdoms. Stout in the original text is “rab” which means captain, chief, great, lord, master.
This kingdom then has to be master or chief over the other ten kingdoms in order to fit the Biblical criteria. Not only did Papal Rome experience conflict with the churches of the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, but it also executed formidable control over other nations.
The Roman papacy engaged in numerous wars to maintain ecclesiastical control over its dominion. Anyone that came against or challenged Papal Rome were destroyed while at the same time, the kings had to bow before the Pope and pay him homage. This kingdom’s stoutness is still effective today, and will be until the end.
“We define that the Holy Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff holds the primacy over the whole world.” The Most Holy Councils, Volume 13, Col 1167.
“The Vicar of the incarnated Son of God, anointed High Priest, and Supreme temporal ruler, the Pope, sat in his tribunal, impartially to judge between nation and nation, between people and prince, between sovereign and subject” Henry Cardinal Manning “The temporal power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ” 1862, p46.
6. Uprooted three kingdoms
Any nation or kingdom that challenged the Papal power in any way were destroyed and its land and cities burned to the ground. The Vandals, Heruli and Ostrogoths can testify of this fact as they were destroyed in totality. Very little is know about these early nations as all their books and writings were burned pile upon pile. Almost all the information, which is not a lot, that is available to us today regarding these three nations comes directly out of the mouth of the Vatican, who claims that the Ostrogoths where Arian of nature and therefore had to be destroyed.
Arian theology comes from the believe of one of the church fathers Arius, who denied the divinity of Jesus.
From the remnant of information available, we do know that the Ostrogoths followed a form of Christianity that originated in Palestine, so it is one of the purest forms of early Christianity that one can find. Can it be that the Ostrogoths were wiped of the face of the earth due to their apposing view on church doctrine? If the Ostrogoths did indeed follow uncorrupted Christian teachings then it gives us the first clue as to what Papal Rome teaches.
The Heruli got extinct in483 AD, followed by the Vandals in 534 AD and the Ostrogoths in 538 AD.
7. Has eyes like a man and speaks great words against the Most High
The Papal See has one man which assumes all authority over the church on earth. This man, the Pope, is titled the Vicar of Christ – which means in the place of Christ, antichrist. The numerical value of the title Vicar of Christ, which is Vicarius Filii Dei in Latin as it is written on the Pope’s golden miter, is 666. This special miter is kept out of public view in the Vatican.
By the Roman Catholic Church, the pope is seen as the successor of Peter and is seen as divine – godly. The pope assumes power such as infallibility, divinity and the power to judge and excommunicate angels.
Lets have a look at some of the claims that are made by the Roman church;
The Catholic Council of Trent in 1545 declared this:
“We define that the Holy Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff hold primacy over the whole world.”
In 1895 an article from the Catholic National said this:
“The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ, Himself, hidden under the veil of flesh.”
Cardinal Robert Bellarmine stated this:
“All names which in the Scriptures are applied to Christ, by virtue of which it is established that he is over the church, all the same names are applied to the Pope”
Other documentation regarding the pope goes like this;
“He [the Pope] can pronounce sentences and judgments in contradiction to the rights of nations, to the law of God and man…He can free himself from the commands of the apostles, he being their superior, and from the rules of the Old Testament…The Pope has power to change times, to abrogate laws, and to dispense with all things, even the precepts of Christ”
The Gloss of Extravagantes of Pope John XXII says this:
“To believe that our Lord God the Pope has not the power to decree as he is decreed, is to be deemed heretical”
In 1512 Christopher Marcellus said to Pope Julius II:
“Take care that we lose not that salvation, that life and breath which thou hast given us, for thou art our shepherd, thou art our physician, thou art our governor, thou art our husbandman, thou art finally another God on earth”
In 1302 Pope Boniface said this in a letter to the Catholic Church:
“Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.“
Pope Pius V said this:
“The Pope and God are the same, so he has all power in Heaven and earth.“
Pope Pius XI said this about himself:
“PIUS XI, Pontifex Maximus.“
Pope Leo XIII said this about the role of the Pope:
“We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty.”
These are some strong statements to be made by mere man and I’m sure they are sufficient to qualify as great words against the Most High. The list of examples that we can produce is exhaustive and I’m sure you will be able to find much more on this topic if you do some research.
8. Make war against the saints of God
Modern history teaches that during the middle ages 50 million saints died for their belief in Christ as the only way unto salvation, that Pope is Antichrist, that the Bible is the ultimate authority over the words of the church and that tradition is secondary to the Word of God, the Bible. Some believe that even 150 million Christians have lost their lives during this period.
Since the early years of the Christian faith, persecution raged in waves and lasted for many years at a time. The persecution against orthodox Christianity, which held onto the pure Word of God, raged throughout most of the period since just after the reign of Emperor Constantine until the end of the Dark Ages, not to mention the persecution that the early church endured under Roman authority in the time before Constantine. The Inquisitions into many different nations, like Spain, was just a tiny part of the whole event.
The Reformation also played a major role in igniting the fires of persecution once again. Millions of saints lost their lives during the Reformation, some burned at the stake, others drowned and some even carved to death. The Reformation gained momentum when brave men like Martin Luther preached with absolute boldness that the seat of the Pope is the very seat of Satan, that Pope is Antichrist, that the Roman Catholic Church is the Mother of Harlots, as spoken of in Revelation. Reformers were so convicted by this messages and convinced by the Biblical evidence that they were willing to die rather than recant of their believes and faith in Christ.
This war is still waging, as you will learn in later studies; the battle against true Christianity has just gone into stealth-mode and is not as prominent as it used to be during the Dark Ages. This secret war can also be seen as the Counter-Reformation, which is alive and well today.
9. Will change times and laws
For this power to be called the Antichrist, I’m sure that God is more concerned about religious times and religious laws than any other types of times and laws. If we are to be sure that we identify this power correctly, we have to find that the Roman Church / Vatican changed times and laws.
By looking at the religious laws that the Roman Catholic Church changed, we will find that it has modified the Ten Commandments of God to suit its own devices, as illustrated below;
|Bible Ten Commandments||Catholic Ten Commandments|
|1st||I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.||1st||I am the LORD thy God. Thou shalt have no strange gods before Me.|
|2nd||Exodus 20:4-6 You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my Commandments.||Deleted. See also idolatry in the Catholic Church|
|3rd||Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God In vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.||2nd||Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain.|
|4th||Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD your God: in it you shall not do any work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your manservant, nor your maidservant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger that is within your gates: For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.||3rd||Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day.(No specific day is mentioned while the Bible makes it clear that it is a day to remember.)|
|5th||Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.||4th||Honour thy father and thy mother.|
|6th||Thou shalt not kill.||5th||Thou shalt not kill.|
|7th||Thou shalt not commit adultery.||6th||Thou shalt not commit adultery.|
|8th||Thou shalt not steal.||7th||Thou shalt not steal.|
|9th||Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.||8th||Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.|
|10th||Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s.||9th||Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife.(The Tenth Commandment is split into two)|
|10th||Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s goods.|
The Roman Church claims authority to abrogate God’s times and laws, as we have seen in one of the quotes above.
The Roman Catholic Church also changed the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday and they admit to it by the following:
“Sunday is our mark of authority – The Church is above the Bible, and this transference of Sabbath observance is proof of that fact” The Catholic Record, London, Ontario, September 1 1923
The Catholic Catechism has the following to say in the Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, by Pieter Geierman, p50:
Question: which is the Sabbath day?
Answer: Saturday is the Sabbath
Question: Why do we obesrve Sunday instead of Saturday?
Answer: We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church in the Council of Laodicea (336 AD) transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday
The Roman Catholic Church is also guilty of changing dates and times of feast days, like Easter and the Christianizing of pagan feast days, like Christmas and St. John’s day – which was actually summer solstice day in Pagan Rome when the sun god accepted their offerings.
In the study of prophetical timelines, all scholars agree that the reference to time is a prophetical year and times in this instance is two prophetical years. The dividing of time is half a prophetical year.
Time, times and the dividing of time is therefore totaling to three and a half (3 1/2) prophetical years. This form of Biblical calculation is often referred to as the day-for-a-year principle, as described in Numbers 14:34 and Ezekiel 4-6.
With prophecies that spans over prophetic periods of months and years, we must use the Jewish calendar’s months and years. A Jewish month is 30 days and a Jewish year is 360 days. A prophecy that refers to a month period means 30 literal years and a prophetical year is therefore 360 literal years.
1 prophetic day = 1 literal year
1 prophetic week (7 days) = 7 literal years
1 prophetic month = 30 literal years
1 prophetic year = 360 literal years
70 prophetical weeks (70 X 7 days = 490 days) = 490 literal years
“time” = 1 prophetical year = 360 literal years
“times” = 2 prophetical years = 720 literal years
“half a time” = 1/2 prophetical year = 180 literal years
42 months = 1260 literal years
3 1/2 years = 1260 literal years
To calculate the sum of time, times and the dividing of time, we have to ad 360 (time = 1 prophetical year, 360 literal years) + 720 (time2 = 2 prophetical years, 720 literal years) + 180 (time = 1/2 prophetical year, 180 literal years) to get to 1260 literal years.
This horn power is therefore said to have 1260 years supremacy over the saints, in this prophecy. This timeline also correlates exactly to other prophecies in Revelation where symbolic periods of reign are given to this power, namely, 42 months, 3 1/2 years and 1260 days, all pointing towards the same timeline.
In the year 538 AD, shortly after the destruction of the Ostrogoths that apposed this power to rise, the official decree was given by Emperor Justinian to give the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, supremacy over the Church of Rome in all matters. This date marked the formal beginning of Papal supremacy and reign for a period of 1260 years with Pope Pius IX crowned as Pope of the Holy Roman Catholic Church.
If you ad 1260 years to 538 you get a date of 1798 AD, which should mark the end of Papal reign, according to this prophecy in Daniel. It was during the French Revolution that Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Paris and under his order, on February 15, 1798 General Louis Berthier entered Rome, proclaimed the Roman Republic and the deposition of Pius IX as head of state, and forced him to withdraw to Tuscany, where he later died in exile.
Pope Pius IX
This event in 1798 marked the end of Papal rule for more than a century, until 1929 when Vatican II was found; and Rome has not yet recovered fully from the hard blow it received – or so you might think…
To conclude, this little horn power did indeed fulfill this prophecy to the letter with its 1260 years reign from 538 AD until 1798.
In Revelation 13 this little kingdom is said to reign for 42 months, which is the same period, before receiving a deadly head wound that will heal. The head wound was incurred in 1798 and it started to heal in 1929 with the founding of Vatican II.
11. It shall devour the whole earth
There is not one country in the world that has not been influenced, either directly or indirectly, by this little world power. Much more will be said on this topic in future articles, as this is the heart of the matter in end time prophecies.
12. Exists until the end of time
We are living in the latter days and by looking at the media, I doubt if this power, the Vatican, will ever disappear from the scene. This power is so intricately weaved into our societies, governments and churches, that we can safely conclude that this power will still exist when the Ancient of Days comes.
13. It is a little kingdom
This little horn represents a little kingdom. In the prophecy it is specifically mentioned as a little horn that comes out from between the other then. It is then, a small kingdom compared to the European nations.
The Vatican today consists of only 44 acres of land with walls around it.
To conclude; there is only one power in the history of the world that fits all these criteria given to us by the prophecies in Daniel so accurately! In the next study titled Revelation 13’s beast out of the sea, you will see that this power is depicted by means of enlargement. Further criteria are given in Revelation 13 by which we can identify this beast, also called the Antichrist, so that we can be absolutely one hundred percent sure that we have identified it correctly.
According to Biblical criteria, the Little Horn of Daniel 7 is the Antichrist, the Lawless one and the son of Perdition. So far, we have a few very good reasons why God is concerned about this system of power and why we are warned against it, but is that enough reason to label it Antichrist? Well, it did change God’s laws and it did persecute the saints and it did set itself above God to a certain degree but it is no thread to anybody in this modern world, or is it?
That is exactly what we have to find out by firstly studying Revelation 13’s beast that rises out of the sea, which is this same little horn depicted as a beast (kingdom) by looking at history and the current situation in the world as created and influenced by this beast.
But it is the system that the Bible wishes to expose, not the dear people that fill the pews! God loves everyone and God’s bride is scattered across many denominations.
Please understand that this article is not to condemn anyone, but only to open eyes to the truths within the pages of the Bible, which says: God loves you so much and He cares about your spiritual well being above anything else. To help us in our search for truths He gave us compasses through means of prophecies so that we might see the world through His eyes, not ours.